Microbes have always inhabited our bodies, our hearts, our lungs, and our brains.
But the ubiquity of microbes in our bodies and environment has now reached the point that we are unable to distinguish between what is harmless and what is harmful.
It is becoming more and more difficult to separate the microbial life from the microbes that cause illness.
This makes sense, according to a new study published in the journal PLOS ONE.
For the first time, researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the University at Buffalo School of Engineering analyzed samples of microbial DNA from all over the world, and they found that microbes living in our body and environment are actually much more diverse than previously thought.
The findings could help us better understand the interactions between microbes and humans and help us understand the risks and benefits of living with microorganisms.
The study also highlights the need for more effective ways to detect and treat microbes in the body, especially when they are living in the human bloodstream.
Researchers used a technique called gel electrophoresis to remove microorganisms from samples of samples taken from the bodies of mice and humans.
The technique, which involves placing a microbe-filled microfluidic gel onto a surface, allows researchers to determine the microbe’s relative abundance by measuring the number of living cells on the surface of the gel.
In a typical gel electrodynamic gel, the number and diversity of living microbes is determined by the amount of protein present on the gel surface.
But, gel electroporation technology does not have the ability to determine specific microorganisms in the living tissues of humans.
Because the method does not detect specific microbe species, it can only determine their relative abundance, or the amount that a sample contains of a particular microbe.
However, because many living organisms can be found on the skin, hair, and mucus membranes of people, gel-electrophoresized samples can be used to determine whether a particular type of bacteria or microbe is present in the sample.
This is how researchers at UW-Madison and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) were able to identify the microorganisms that cause Lyme disease in mice and human skin.
“In humans, the most common bacteria found in the bloodstream are Candida species,” said Jens Schmitz, a research scientist at the UW-Milwaukee Center for Infectious Disease Research, who led the research.
“Candida species are ubiquitous, and there are thousands of them.
We wanted to see if we could find out whether these bacteria cause Lyme in mice or humans.
We chose mice because they are easy to study and we wanted to know if we can use mice as models for humans.”
In this study, the researchers used a gel electrocortisator (GEC) to extract the DNA of Candida sp. and then extracted it from the samples.
The GEC allowed the researchers to compare the DNA fragments of Candidacriosus sp. from mice to Candida bacteria from humans.
They found that Candida from mice and Candida cells from humans were identical.
This finding was important because the Candidacs species that cause infection are found in many other organisms.
This was a first step toward understanding the differences between human and mouse microorganisms when it comes to their role in Lyme disease.
The research team then used a combination of gel electrolysis and gel electron microscopy to measure the diversity of Candids.
They identified Candidaca species from mice that were highly abundant in samples from mice, but less abundant in mouse skin.
This suggests that Candidaceans may be able to live in human skin without causing disease.
This study was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the NIH, and the UW Medical School.